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      挖比特幣產生的碳,要種3億棵樹才能抵消

      挖比特幣產生的碳,要種3億棵樹才能抵消

      Shawn Tully 2021-11-10
      一項最新研究已經計算出需要多大規模的植樹造林,以抵消比特幣、以太坊等加密數字貨幣產生的大量碳足跡。

      杰出的物理學家弗里曼·戴森(1923–2020)曾經指出,世界各地遍植樹苗將被證明是應對全球變暖的絕佳方法。如今,一項最新研究已經計算出需要多大規模的植樹造林,以抵消比特幣(Bitcoin)、以太坊(Ethereum)等加密數字貨幣產生的大量碳足跡。研究來源為Forex Suggest,這是一家總部位于南非的網站,致力于提供交易與金融市場教育。Forex Suggest發布的《加密數字貨幣交易的全球影響》(Global Impact of Crypto Trading)報告顯示,與以太坊等加密數字貨幣相比,為消除比特幣挖礦引起的污染,需要啟動迄今為止全球最大規模的植樹造林。原因很簡單:比特幣的耗電量為競爭對手的數倍。作為標志性的加密數字貨幣,比特幣今年預計耗電760億千瓦時左右,是以太坊的將近3倍,萊特幣(Litecoin)的100多倍。

      Forex Suggest 估計,比特幣每年排放二氧化碳總計5700萬噸左右,是以太坊碳足跡的兩倍多。值得注意的是,如此多的能源消耗只引發了較低的交易量。因為比特幣分布式網絡運行緩慢,用戶每小時只能夠在區塊鏈上發布大約1.2萬條購買、銷售和轉讓帖。也就是說,一年大約會發生1.15億筆交易。相反,以太坊的年交易量是比特幣的4倍多,但耗電量卻遠不及比特幣的一半。結果是:比特幣每次交易耗電量達到驚人的707千瓦時,為以太坊的11倍;每次你打開比特幣應用程序購買一杯拿鐵或向高爾夫賭球贏了你的朋友轉點比特幣時,就會排放半噸二氧化碳。而以太坊每處理一次購買或轉讓交易,排放的二氧化碳小于比特幣的十分之一。

      那么,為了吸收比特幣每年排放的大量二氧化碳,需要種植多少棵樹呢?Forex Suggest 給出的答案是2.84億棵,這是個大數目。美國紐約中央公園有1.8萬棵楓樹、云杉等樹木,而高度農業化的美國新澤西州有8.06億棵樹。為補償比特幣產生的污染,需要種植的樹苗數量,相當于樹木繁茂的花園之州新澤西州的三分之一,美國加利福尼亞州森林的4%。

      Forex Suggest 的預測是建立在熱帶地區植樹的基礎上的;在熱帶,樹苗發芽很快,為死亡或無法發揮碳吸存潛力的樹木提供額外烘烤。

      2007年,美國普林斯頓高等研究院(Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton)的量子電動力學和核工程傳奇人物戴森寫道:“在出現全球緊急情況時,種植足夠的樹木和其他迅速生長的植物以吸收過量二氧化碳并防止二氧化碳的年度增長,也許可行?!蹦菚r比特幣尚未加劇碳排放的嚴重性。如今,面對比特幣這種沒有實際用處發明產生的問題,大規模植樹造林的目的,僅僅是為了維持溫室氣體排放量不變,更不用說減排。如果可以知道戴森對此會如何評價,那就太有意思了。作為開辟新天地的科學家,他可能會驚訝于一個需要污染環境才能夠存在的發明究竟是如何站穩腳跟的。(財富中文網)

      譯者:夏晴

      杰出的物理學家弗里曼·戴森(1923–2020)曾經指出,世界各地遍植樹苗將被證明是應對全球變暖的絕佳方法。如今,一項最新研究已經計算出需要多大規模的植樹造林,以抵消比特幣(Bitcoin)、以太坊(Ethereum)等加密數字貨幣產生的大量碳足跡。研究來源為Forex Suggest,這是一家總部位于南非的網站,致力于提供交易與金融市場教育。Forex Suggest發布的《加密數字貨幣交易的全球影響》(Global Impact of Crypto Trading)報告顯示,與以太坊等加密數字貨幣相比,為消除比特幣挖礦引起的污染,需要啟動迄今為止全球最大規模的植樹造林。原因很簡單:比特幣的耗電量為競爭對手的數倍。作為標志性的加密數字貨幣,比特幣今年預計耗電760億千瓦時左右,是以太坊的將近3倍,萊特幣(Litecoin)的100多倍。

      Forex Suggest 估計,比特幣每年排放二氧化碳總計5700萬噸左右,是以太坊碳足跡的兩倍多。值得注意的是,如此多的能源消耗只引發了較低的交易量。因為比特幣分布式網絡運行緩慢,用戶每小時只能夠在區塊鏈上發布大約1.2萬條購買、銷售和轉讓帖。也就是說,一年大約會發生1.15億筆交易。相反,以太坊的年交易量是比特幣的4倍多,但耗電量卻遠不及比特幣的一半。結果是:比特幣每次交易耗電量達到驚人的707千瓦時,為以太坊的11倍;每次你打開比特幣應用程序購買一杯拿鐵或向高爾夫賭球贏了你的朋友轉點比特幣時,就會排放半噸二氧化碳。而以太坊每處理一次購買或轉讓交易,排放的二氧化碳小于比特幣的十分之一。

      那么,為了吸收比特幣每年排放的大量二氧化碳,需要種植多少棵樹呢?Forex Suggest 給出的答案是2.84億棵,這是個大數目。美國紐約中央公園有1.8萬棵楓樹、云杉等樹木,而高度農業化的美國新澤西州有8.06億棵樹。為補償比特幣產生的污染,需要種植的樹苗數量,相當于樹木繁茂的花園之州新澤西州的三分之一,美國加利福尼亞州森林的4%。

      Forex Suggest 的預測是建立在熱帶地區植樹的基礎上的;在熱帶,樹苗發芽很快,為死亡或無法發揮碳吸存潛力的樹木提供額外烘烤。

      2007年,美國普林斯頓高等研究院(Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton)的量子電動力學和核工程傳奇人物戴森寫道:“在出現全球緊急情況時,種植足夠的樹木和其他迅速生長的植物以吸收過量二氧化碳并防止二氧化碳的年度增長,也許可行?!蹦菚r比特幣尚未加劇碳排放的嚴重性。如今,面對比特幣這種沒有實際用處發明產生的問題,大規模植樹造林的目的,僅僅是為了維持溫室氣體排放量不變,更不用說減排。如果可以知道戴森對此會如何評價,那就太有意思了。作為開辟新天地的科學家,他可能會驚訝于一個需要污染環境才能夠存在的發明究竟是如何站穩腳跟的。(財富中文網)

      譯者:夏晴

      The distinguished physicist Freeman Dyson (1923–2020) once remarked that dotting the globe with great swaths of saplings would prove an excellent way to counter global warming. Now, a new study has calculated the scale of the new forests required to offset the massive carbon footprints of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and a number of other cryptocurrencies. The source is Forex Suggest, a South Africa–based site that provides education on trading and financial markets. Its Global Impact of Crypto Trading report finds that erasing the pollution spewed by Bitcoin mining would require by far the biggest expansion of the world’s forests, versus Ethereum and the other cryptos. The reason is basic: Bitcoin uses multiples of the amount of electricity deployed by each of its rivals. The signature coin will burn roughly 76 billion kWh this year, nearly triple the consumption of Ethereum, and over 100 times that of Litecoin.

      All told, Bitcoin emits—by Forex Suggest’s estimate—some 57 million tons of CO2 annually, more than double Ethereum’s footprint. It’s noteworthy that for Bitcoin, all that energy generates a relatively low number of transactions. Because its distributed network is so slow, its users post only around 12,000 purchases, sales, and transfers on the blockchain each hour. That’s approximately 115 million transactions a year. By contrast, Ethereum handles over four times those volumes—devouring, once again, far less than half the juice. The result: Bitcoin deploys an incredible 707 kWh of electricity per transaction, 11 times as much as Ethereum, and emits 1,061 pounds, or half a ton, of CO2 every time you tap the app to buy a latte or zap a fraction to a buddy who beat you on a golf bet. Ethereum sends less than one-tenth of that carbon skyward for each purchase or transfer it processes.

      So how many new trees would it take to swallow all the CO2 that Bitcoin gushes each year? Forex Suggest puts the number at 284 million. That’s a lot of greenery. Central Park hosts 18,000 maples, spruces, and the like. New Jersey, an extremely rural state, by the way, is home to 806 million trees. Compensating for Bitcoin’s pollution would require installing new root balls equaling one-third the leaf-crowned trunks gracing the Garden State, and 4% of the forests of California.

      Forex Suggest based its projections on saplings planted in the tropics, where they sprout fast, baking in extras for the trees that die or fail to reach their potential for carbon sequestration.

      In 2007, Dyson—a legend on quantum electrodynamics and nuclear engineering at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton—wrote that “it would be possible in the case of a worldwide emergency to plant enough trees and other fast-growing plants to absorb the excess CO2 and bring the annual increase to a halt.” At the time, Bitcoin wasn’t adding to the problem. It would be fascinating to learn how Dyson would rate an invention offering no practical uses that greatly increases the forested expanses needed just to keep greenhouse gas emissions the same, let alone reduce them. As a scientist who broke new ground, he might be marveling at how a brainchild that pollutes to exist ever took hold.

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